Lowerback Pain

  1. The Merck Manual. Nineteenth Edition. 2011
  2. The Merck Manual of Patient Symptoms. A Concise, Practical Guide to Etiology, Evaluation, and Treatment. 2008
  3. MedlinePlus® .U.S. National library of Medicine. NIH National Institutes of Health. Accessed 22 July 2013.09.03
  4. Mattila K, Leino M, Kemppi C, et al. Perceived Disadvantages Caused by Low Back Pain. Journal Rehabilitation Medicine. 2011; 43:684-688.
  5. The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook 2009
  6. Our Health Network, (n.d.) Muscle Strain of the Lower Back. Retrieved June 3, 2013 from
  7. Transact® South African Package Insert (Current)

Shoulder Pain

  1. Woodward TW, Bes TM. The Painful Shoulder: Part 1. Clinical Evaluation. American Family Physician. 2000; 61 (10):3079-3088.
  2. Reynolds A. Imaging the Injured Shoulder. Radiology Technology. 2012; 83 (3):261-282.008
  3. U.S. National Library of Health. Medline Plus. Accessed 4 July 2013
  4. Linsell L. Dawson J. Zondervan K, et al. Prevalence and incidence of adults for shoulder conditions in UK primary care; patterns of diagnosis and referral. Rheumatology. 2006; 45: 215-221.
  5. The Merck Manual. Home Health Handbook. 2009 Accessed
  6. Rell MJ. Governer J, Galvin R. Cumalative Trauma Disorders. Conneticut Department of Public Health and Occupational Health Assessment Program. 2008
  7. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. June 2010. Accessed 4 July 2013
  8. The Merck Manual. Nineteenth Edition. 2011.
  9. TransAct® South African Package Insert. (Current)
  10. Oxford Medical Dictionary. 1996.

Neck Pain

  1. The Merck Manual of Patient Symptoms. A Concise, Practical Guide to Etiology, Evaluation, and Treatment. 2008
  2. Childs JD Cleland JA, Elliot JM, et al. Neck Pain: Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health From Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. Journal Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 2008; 38(9):A1-A34.
  3. Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. The Essential Home Medical Reference for Every Stage of Life-In Everyday Language. 2009
  4. University of Illinois. Mckinley Health Center. 2010. Accessed 1 July 2013
  5. Wikipedia. Neck Pain. Accessed 1 July 2003
  6. Skillgate E. Magnusson C, Lundberg M, et al. The age-and sex-specific occurrence of bothersome neck pain in the general population-results from Stockholm public health. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2012; 13;1-9.
  7. Mayo Clinic. Neck Pain: Symptoms. 1998-2013. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Accessed 1 July 2013.
  8. Neck Pain. Spine Clinic. Orthopaedic surgeons specializing in both conservative and surgical care of the spine. Accessed 1 July 2013
  9. Loyd AM, Nightingale RW, Song Y, et al. Impact Properties of Adult ATD Heads. IRCOBI CONFERENCE 2012. IRC 12-64
  10. Smith L, et al. Authors’ Affiliations: Physiotherapy Division, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa. Prevalence of Neck Pain and Headaches: Impact of Computer Use and Other Associative Factors. Cephalalgia. 2009; 29: 250-57.
  11. Ogiela O.U.S National Library of Medicine.NIH National Institutes of Health. MedlinePlus® Accessed 1 July 2013
  12. Australian Government. National Health and Medical Research Council. Acute Neck Pain. Information Sheet. February 2004. Australian Acute Musculoskeletal Pain Guidelines Groups (2003) Evidence-Based Management of Acute Musculoskeletal Pain, available at
  13. TransAct® South African Package Insert. (Current)